Juvenal Bio, Early Life, Career, Net Worth and Salary

Juvenal, or Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, was a Roman poet who lived between the late first and early second centuries AD. He was the author of well-known “Satires.” There is little evidence about his life, although references in his writings to well-known persons from the late 1st and early 2nd centuries AD help to date them. His writings are in the caustic style of Lucilius, the founder of the Roman satire genre and heir to a poetry lineage that includes Horace and Persius. Juvenal authored approximately 16 dactylic hexameter poems in which he covered an encyclopedic range of topics from all across the Roman world. His key work, the “Satires,” is a valuable resource for studying ancient Rome from a variety of angles.

Childhood and Life as a Juvenal

The material now available is insufficient to pinpoint the precise details of Juvenal’s life. His well-known biography, “Vita Iuvenalis” (Life of Juvenal), was little more than a deduction from the “Satires.” Juvenal was the son of a wealthy freedman, according to traditional biographies such as “Vita Iuvenalis.”

He was reported to have been a student of Quintillian’s and to have practiced rhetoric until he was in his forties, both for fun and for legal reasons. In the latter part of his life, he began his profession as a satirist.

Only a few biographies mention Aquinum as his birthplace. Only one of the conventional biographies mentions his birth year as 55 AD. Many of these biographies agree that Juvenal spent a period of his life in exile, most likely as a result of offending a high-ranking court official.

It went on to say that Emperor Domitian had exiled him. The majority of these biographies situate his exile in Egypt, with the exception of one that claims he was exiled to Scotland. Some biographies claim he perished in exile, while others claim he was called back to Rome.

There are still doubts about the veracity of the information contained in these biographies. As a result, it’s impossible to say how much of the content in these biographies is fictional or true.

The majority of the information we have about him comes from his writings, yet some components appear to be more significant than others.

Although Juvenal never referenced his exile in his writings, the fact that he was exiled is stated in most of the extant biographies. Many experts believe that the concept of exile was invented by subsequent generations.

The “Satires” include references to Egypt and Britain, which is likely why the myth that Juvenal was exiled to these places arose. Some experts, including Gilbert Highet, believe that the exile occurred and is true.

The exile, according to these scholars, lasted from 93 AD to 96 AD, when Nerva became Emperor. Juvenal returned to Rome after Domitian’s assassination in 96 AD.

He didn’t have any money or a job, so he had to rely on the generosity of the wealthy. According to the autobiographical information presented in “Satire 11,” his condition improved over time, and he lived happily in Rome and had a farm in Tibur in his old years.

Later satires indicate a shift in his tone, as well as certain characteristics of human goodness. Despite the lack of a precise date of death, he most likely died in or around 127 AD.

Juvenile’s famous Works

The “Satires,” a collection of 16 satiric poems by Juvenal, are his most famous works. The life of Rome under the administration of numerous Emperors such as Domitian, Nerva, Trajan, and Hadrian is mostly depicted in this poetry. These poems were released in five books at different times.

The satires 1–5 in the first book, or Book One, portrayed the atrocities of Domitian’s tyrannical reign. It was written between the years 100 and 110 AD. The second book contains a single massive Satire 6 with references to the year 115 AD. Satires 7, 8, and 9 make up the third book.

Emperor Hadrian, who was reputed to be a great admirer of literature, opened the book with praise. He established a literary institute to assist writers. Satires 10, 11, and 12 were included in Book Four. Satires 13-16 were included in the fifth and final book. There were also two references to the year 127 AD in this text.

These “Satires” are based on two major themes: the corruption of Rome’s society and humanity’s excesses and brutalities.

In the first Satire, Juvenal discusses how immorality, crime, and riches misuse had reached a stage where he could easily write satire, but that it was risky to lash out at powerful persons while they were alive, so he chose to draw instances from the dead.

However, he did not always adhere to this idea and occasionally used living contemporaries as examples. He mocks both active and passive homosexuals in Satire 2, and he mocks both active and passive homosexuals in Satire 9. In the third Satire, a Juvenal acquaintance explains why he left crowded and corrupt Rome.

He claims that Greeks and other immigrants have wrecked Rome and that he is leaving his life as a city dependent to live in a serene and quiet country.

He describes how the Domitian summoned his cabinet to examine an inane petty matter of cooking a huge turbot in an ordinary skillet in Satire 4.

He mocks a dependent man in the sixth Satire by recounting the humiliation he must through whenever his patron invites him to dinner. Satires 6 is a large 600-line poem that viciously criticizes Roman women’s brutality, arrogance, and sexual perversion.

In his seventh Satire, Juvenal exposes the poverty and misery of Roman intellectuals who were unable to be adequately compensated for their efforts. The obsession with hereditary nobility is attacked in Satire 8.

One of his best poems, Satire 10, illustrates how human desires such as wealth, power, glory, and personal beauty lead to disappointment or troubles, whereas humanity should strive for a sound intellect, a sound body, and a brave heart.

The eleventh Satire depicts him inviting an old friend to a quiet supper where they discuss the extravagantly flashy feasts of the wealthy. Satire 12 is a short poem that highlights the distinction between genuine and mercenary friendship.

He soothes a friend in Satire 13 and sarcastically remarks on how such wrongdoings are prevalent. Satire 14 criticizes parents who instill avarice in their children. He relates how a riot in Egypt tore a guy apart and ate him in Satire 15, demonstrating that humans are crueler than animals.

He announces in Satire 16 that he will investigate the benefits accorded to professional troops, but the poems are left unfinished beyond line 60.

His Influence

Juvenal’s work was ignored for a long period until Tertullian, a Christian propagandist, began reading and quoting his works in 200 AD. Other Christian authors and pagan literary students afterward read and analyzed his writings.

Many satirists, including Giovanni Boccaccio, Nicolas Boileau, and Lord Byron, later mimicked Juvenal. Many authors were influenced by his “Satires,” notably Samuel Johnson, who modeled “London” on Satire 3 and “The Vanity of Human Wishes” on Satire 10.

Estimated net worth

Juvenile has a net worth of $500 thousand dollars as an American rapper and producer. He is a former member of the hip-hop group the Hot Boys and is most known for his work with Cash Money Records.


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